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Deep Boreholes for Ground-Source Heat Pump [Elektronisk resurs] Final report

Mazzotti, Willem, 1991- (författare)
Acuña, José, 1982- (författare)
Lazzarotto, Alberto (författare)
Palm, Björn, 1955- (författare)
Ground-Source Heat Pump (medarbetare)
KTH Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM) (utgivare)
Publicerad: 2018
Engelska 87
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  • This report presents the obtained results and performed tasks during the project Deep Boreholes for Ground-Source Heat Pumps, within the framework of the research program Effsys Expand. A price model for the investment of GSHP system with deep Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHEs) is derived from a survey submitted to Swedish drillers. Notably, it is shown that the price increases with the borehole depth in a cubic fashion. Up to 300 m depth, the model shows a good match with a linear correlation having a slope of 275 SEK/m, a figure that is close to commonly used estimates for the total installation price of a single BHE. For larger depths, however, the installation price becomes non-linear and deviates from this linear tendency. Examples of total installation prices, including heat pumps and BHEs installation, are given. Measurements performed in three different installations with deep boreholes are reported. The first tests are performed in a 800 m deep borehole equipped with acoaxial collector. Five Distributed Thermal Response Tests (DTRTs) are performed inthis BHE of which four were heat-extraction DTRTs. It is shown that heat flux inversion happens along the depth of the boreholes, that is heat is extracted at the bottom of the borehole but lost at the top. The flow rate is shown to have a significant effect on the thermal shunt effect and the coaxial BHE is shown to have significantly lower pressure drops that more traditional BHE (e.g. U-pipes). The pressure drop vs. flow rate relation is experimentally characterized through a hydraulic step test. An effective borehole resistance of 0.21 m∙K/W was found. This value is relatively high and is explained as a consequence of limited flow rate and the large depth. More investigations as regards the measurement technique (DTS with fiber optic cables) are needed before performing further in-depth analysis. In another installation, four 510 m boreholes are measured to deviate about 30% from the vertical direction, highlighting the importance of drilling precision for deep boreholes, more particularly in urban environment. The GSHP system, using 50mmU-pipe BHEs is monitored over a year and it is found that pumping energy consumption in the boreholes could be as high as 22% of the total energy consumption of the system (compressors and circulation pumps). The relevance of pressure drops and control strategies for the circulation pumps in the borehole loop is emphasized. The temperature profile with depth confirms the existence of stored heat in the top part of the ground in urban environment. The results of two DTRTs performed in the same borehole (335 m) are reported, thelatter being first water-filled before being grouted. The obtained thermal conductivities differ from one case to another, possibly highlighting the effect of the filling material on the results. Several other explanations are proposed although none can be fully verified. The design and construction phases of a laboratory-scale borehole storage model are reported. The design phase mainly focused on deriving analytical scaling laws and finding a suitable size for such a model. Through the design analysis, an explanation to the discrepancy observed in the only previous attempt to validate long-term thermal behavior of boreholes is proposed. Investigations as regards the KTH heat pump system, optimum flow rates in GSHPsystems with deep BHEs and quantification of thermal influence between neighboringboreholes are discussed although the work could not be fully completed within thetimeframe of the project. The dissemination of knowledge through different activity is reported. 

Ämnesord

Engineering and Technology  (hsv)
Mechanical Engineering  (hsv)
Energy Engineering  (hsv)
Teknik och teknologier  (hsv)
Maskinteknik  (hsv)
Energiteknik  (hsv)
Energiteknik  (kth)
Energy Technology  (kth)
Fastigheter och byggande  (kth)
Real Estate and Construction Management  (kth)

Genre

government publication  (marcgt)

Indexterm och SAB-rubrik

Deep borehole
Ground-Source Heat Pump
Coaxial
Borehole Heat Exchanger
Drilling cost
Heat transfer
Thermal shunt
Hydraulic performance
Pressure drop
TRT
DTRT
Thermal Response Tests
Distributed Thermal Response Tests
Performance monitoring
Optimum flow
KTH Heat pump
Numerical model
Downscaling
lab-scale borehole storage
Distributed Temperature Sensing
Fiber optics
Inställningar Hjälp

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